TwoOldGuys™ Study Guides
BI-122 Biology
the Cell

Structure & Function


Structure Function
plasma membrane boundary
endoplasmic reticulum (er) internal transport
Golgi apparatus export warehouse
mitachondrion energy
chloroplast energy
nuclear membrane boundary
nucleolus DNA transcrition
chromosomes DNA storage
free ribosomes construction
attached ribosomes enzyme factories

Origin of Eucaryotic Cell

  1. prokaryote cell is membrane bound structure containing DNA
  2. eukaryote cell contains membrane bound inclusions containing DNA
    1. nucleus
    2. mitachondria
    3. chloroplasts
  3. DNA hybridization results
    1. mitachrondria DNA more like Bacteria DNA than nucleus DNA
    2. chloroplast DNA more like Cyanobacteria DNA than nucleus DNA
  4. hypothesis: mitachondria and chloroplasts are symbiont bacterial inclusions
  5. data: a bacterial symbiont of the aphid Cinara cedri now has 422,434-b genome;
    when last sequenced [about 10 yr ago] was 200-kb larger.
    Some metabolic functions have been lost.
    V. Pérez-Brocal, et al. 2006. "A Small Microbial Genome: the end of a long symbiontic relationship?" Science vol 314(13 Oct 2006): pp. 312-313.


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revised 30 oct 2006