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BI-122 Biology
Chemical Reactions

Model of Chem Reactions

H2O + CO2 ↔ H2CO3

. molecules of carbon dioxide and water can be represented as
. . . . . .O=C=O . . .and . . .H-O-H
. accounting for polar bonds
. . . . . . δ-O = C2δ+ = Oδ- . . . and . . . δ+H - 2δ-O-Hδ+
. When the CO2 dissolves in the H2O,
. the H of the water can hydrogen bond to the O of the carbon dioxide
. . . O = C = O • H - O - H
. but the two bonds on the H will equalize
. . . O = C = O • H • O-H
. which breaks the H-OH bond and strengthens the O-H bond
. . . O = C = O - H . -OH
. now the O has too many bonds, so breaks a C-O bond

. . . . . . . |
. . . O = C - O - H . -OH
. leaving an unused bond location on the C which bonds to any available radical such as the -OH
. . . . . . . .. OH
. . . . . . .. /
. . .O = C
. . . . . . .. \
. . . . . . . .. OH

types of reactions

reactants products
A - B + C - D A - C + B - D

Radicles, a.k.a. functional groups

Biological macromolecules



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revised 19 aug 2006