TwoOldGuys™ Study Guides
BI-122 Biology
the Science Process

# General characteristics of Science:

• state assumptions
• define terms
• fact
• = anything observable, directly or indirectly
• estimates:
• "precise" = repeatable
• "accurate" = close to actual value
• averages and Statistics
• use logical reasoning
• deductive reasoning
[Sherlock Holmes]
• inductive reasoning
[if A → B and B → C, then A → C]
• It is impossible to conclude that assumptions are true or false.

## Scientific Methods:

• 0. choose an interesting problem
• 1. ask simpler questions [according to Einstein]
• research (library & laboratory) known facts
• use deductive reasoning
to identify minimum set of assumptions necessary to develop explanation
• 2. guess answer, "hypothesis"
• use inductive reasoning
to identify maximum set of sufficient assumptions
and to develop the tentative explanation
• the explanation is expected to:
• predict some observable event if conditions are met
• but not event if conditions not met
• 3. conduct experiment to test hypothesis
• experimental design
• experimental group where conditions are met
• control group where conditions are not met
• statistical implications
• collect & analyze data
• 4. draw conclusions
• IF event=T in experimental, AND event=F in control
• THEN shout "Eureka! I proved my hypothesis to be true."
• or
• IF event=F in experimental, OR event=T in control
• THEN shout "Eureka, I proved my hypothesis to be false."
• It is impossible to conclude that assumptions are true or false.