TwoOldGuys™ Study Guides
BI-114 BioConcepts for Teachers
Ch 1. Introduction
1.1. the Science Process

# General Characteristics of Science:

### Define terms and assumptions

• tomorrow = "when next we meet as a class"
• fact = anything observable, directly or indirectly
• (inherently boring by definition)
• qualitative = descriptive fact, not able to be measured
• quantitative = measurable fact
• data = any collection of facts,
• usually implies quantitative rather than qualitative,
• but not part of definition
• any measurement is an estimate
• "precise" = how repeatable a measurement is,
• "accurate" = how close to actual value an estimate is

### examples of assumptions:

• a fundamental premise (assumption) of statistics
• The average of several estimates is 'better' than any one estimate, and
• variance (standard deviation) about mean estimates precision
• [within estimates, W/I].
• the Central Limit Theorem [a provable mathematical theorem]
• The average of several means [Grand Mean]
is more accurate than any one mean,
• and the assumption:
• variance about the Grand Mean estimates accuracy
• [between estimates, B/T].

### Logical argument

• deductive reasoning - Sherlock Holmes.
• inductive reasoning - if A and B then C

# a [not "The"] Scientific Method:

In the lab Science is, or should be, "hands-on" or discovery method!

• (we spell guess "h y p o t h e s i s")
• a hypothesis should:
• a) predict some observable event which will occur if conditions are met
• b) but event will not occur if conditions are not met.

### 3. conduct experiment to test hypothesis

• experimental group where conditions are met
• control group where conditions are not met

### 4. draw conclusions

• If event = T in experimental, AND event = F in control
• shout "Eureka! I proved my hypothesis to be true."
or
• If event = F in experimental, OR event = T in control
• shout "Eureka, I proved my hypothesis to be false."
 expr ctrl conclusion T F Ho true H1 false T T Ho false F F F T H1 true

### 5. write lab report

• (at Ancilla College, use MLA format)
• Introduction
• provide any appropriate library research or other background information,
with appropriate citations.
• Procedures (Materials and Methods)
• like a recipe, in sufficient detail that anyone could repeat the experiment.
• what supplies are needed (be specific), and how much of each.
• what to do with the supplies.
• Data
• what happened? qualitative and/or quantitative data; "just the facts..."
• tables, graphs, pictures, etc.
• Conclusions
• the hypothesis is true!
or
• the hypothesis is false.
• [optional] how does this change our concept of how the Universe works?

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